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SQL WHERE Clause

The SQL WHERE clause is used to restrict the number of rows affected by a SELECT, UPDATE or DELETE query.

  • WHERE clause is used to limit the number of rows.
  • WHERE clause filters for rows that meet certain criteria.
  • WHERE clause is followed by a condition that returns either true or false.

SQL WHERE syntax

The WHERE clause is not only used in SELECT statement, it is also used in UPDATE, DELETE etc.

Where clause with a SELECT

SELECT column_names
FROM table_name
WHERE [condition];

Where clause with a UPDATE

UPDATE table_name
SET column_name = value
WHERE [condition];

Where clause with a DELETE

DELETE table_name
WHERE [condition];

Employee Table

A sample of EMPLOYEE records table & the name of table Employee. The column(s) of the Employee table [ID, EMPLOYEE_NAME, EMPLOYEE_EMAIL, ADDRESS, CITY, and COUNTRY]:

ID EMPLOYEE_NAME EMPLOYEE_EMAIL ADDRESS CITY COUNTRY
1 Mark J. mark@gmail.com House 53, Sq. London U.K.
2 Lack Josh lackjosh@gmail.com 2745 road mark Delhi India
3 Kim Juhu kimjuhu@gmail.com Street 587327, 34 House Seoul South Korea
4 Jack Jenifer jenifer@gmail.com 464673 Mataderos Mexico D.F. Mexico
5 McKinley mckinley@gmail.com 54, Road Washington Washington U.S.
6 Alena aln@gmail.com House No. 6563 Tokyo Japan Japan
7 Mack Marina mmk@gmail.com 43 Road, NH San Francisco U.S.
8 Dipak Jha jha@gmail.com Mahanager, 26 Road Lucknow India

SELECT Query, WHERE Clause Example

Note: For char value should be enclosed in quotes

SELECT * 
FROM Employee
WHERE COUNTRY = 'India';

Result

ID EMPLOYEE_NAME EMPLOYEE_EMAIL ADDRESS CITY COUNTRY
2 Lack Josh lackjosh@gmail.com 2745 road mark Delhi India
8 Dipak Jha jha@gmail.com Mahanager, 26 Road Lucknow India

WHERE Clause Operators

Operators Description
=, != Equal, Not Equal
>, < Greater than, Less than
>=, <= Greater than or Equal, Less than or Equal
BETWEEN A Certain Range
LIKE Search for a pattern
IN Specify multiple possible values for a column

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