SQL Tutorials

What is SQL?

We discuss about SQL Database; SQL stands for Structured Query Language:

SQL is a database computer language designed for the retrieval and management of data in a relational database.

  • SQL stands for Structured Query Language.
  • SQL is a standard language for accessing and manipulating databases.
  • SQL became a standard of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1986, and of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1987

How to describe SQL?

In my point of view SQL divided into following:

  • Basic SQL - Like: Overview, RDBMS Concepts, Database, Syntax, Order By, Queries, Min & Max, Where, Count, Avg, Sum, Like, Wildcard, In, Between, etc.
  • Advanced SQL - Like: Union, Group By, Exists, Any All, Fuctions, Stored Procedure, Comments, etc.
  • SQL Database - Create database, Drop database, Create table, Alter table Constraints, Unique, Primary Key, Foreign Key, Index, etc.
  • SQL Join - Inner Join, Left Join, Right Join, Full Join, Self Join, etc.

The SQL Language

SQL is a tool for organizing, managing, and retrieving data stored by a computer database.

As the name implies, SQL is a computer language that you use to interact with a database. In fact, SQL works with one specific type of database, called a relational database

SQL is used to control all of the functions that a DBMS provides for its users, including:

  • Data Definition - SQL lets a user define the structure and organization of the stored data and relationships among the stored data items.
  • Data Retrieval - SQL allows a user or an application program to retrieve stored data from the database and use it.
  • Data Manipulation - SQL allows a user or an application program to update the database by adding new data, removing old data, and modifying previously stored data.
  • Access Control - SQL can be used to restrict a user’s ability to retrieve, add, and modify data, protecting stored data against unauthorized access.
  • Data Sharing - SQL is used to coordinate data sharing by concurrent users, ensuring that they do not interfere with one another.
  • Data Integrity - SQL defines integrity constraints in the database, protecting it from corruption due to inconsistent updates or system failures.

SQL is thus a comprehensive language for controlling and interacting with a database management system. SQL is not really a complete computer language like C Language, C++, or Java.

SQL Features and Benefits

SQL is easy to understand language and a comprehensive tool for managing data. There are some of the major features and benefits of SQL:

  • Multiple views of data
  • Dynamic data definition
  • Vender independence
  • Protability across computer system
  • Client/Server architecture


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